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ACHRE Report

Final Report

Executive Summary



Part I

Part II

Part III

Discussion: Part III

Part IV


The books and articles listed below provide additional reading in scientific, ethical, and historical literature. A comprehensive bibliography of primary and secondary sources used in this report appears in the supplemental volume Sources and Documentation.

Research Ethics

Annas, George J., and Michael A. Grodin, eds., The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Beecher, Henry K. "Ethics and Clinical Research." New England Journal of Medicine 274 (1966): 1354-1360.

Bok, Sissela. Secrets: On the Ethics of Concealment and Revelation. New York: Vintage Books, 1989.

Couglin, Steven S., and Tom L. Beauchamp. Ethics in Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, forthcoming.

Faden, Ruth, and Tom L. Beauchamp. A History and Theory of Informed Consent. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Gray, Bradford H. Human Subjects in Medical Experimentation: A Sociological Study of the Conduct and Regulation of Clinical Research. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1975.

Grodin, Michael A., and Leonard H. Glantz, eds., Children as Research Subjects: Science, Ethics, and Law. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Institute of Medicine, Committee on the Ethical and Legal Issues Relating to the Inclusion of Women in Clinical Studies. Women and Health Research: Ethical and Legal Issues of Including Women in Clinical Studies. Vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1994.

Katz, Jay. Experimentation with Human Beings: The Authority of the Investigator, Subject, Professions, and State in the Human Experimentation Process. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1972.

Katz, Jay. The Silent World of Doctor and Patient. New York: Free Press, 1984.

Lederer, Susan. Subjected to Science: Human Experimentation in America after the Second World War. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

Levine, Robert J. Ethics and Regulation of Clinical Research. 2d ed. Baltimore: Urban and Schwarzenberg, 1986.

Lifton, Robert Jay. Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide. New York: Basic Books, 1986.

Orlans, F. Barbara. In the Name of Science: Issues in Responsible Animal

Experimentation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Rothman, David J. Strangers at the Bedside: A History of How Law and

Bioethics Transformed Medical Decision Making. New York: Basic Books, 1991.

Veatch, Robert M. The Patient as Partner: A Theory of Human-Experimentation Ethics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.


Brucer, Marshall. A Chronology of Nuclear Medicine. St. Louis, Mo.: Heritage Publications, 1990.

Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Board on Radiation Effects Research. Commission on Life Sciences. National Research Council. Health Risks of Radon and other Internally Deposited Alpha-Emitters: BEIR IV. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1988.

Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Board on Radiation Effects Research, National Research Council. Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR V. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1990.

Conklin, James J., and Richard I. Walker, eds., Military Radiobiology. Orlando, Fla.: Academic Press, 1987.

Eisenberg, Ronald L. Radiology: An Illustrated History. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book, 1992.

Gofman, John W. Radiation and Human Health. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1981.

Hennekens, Charles H., and Julie E. Buring. Epidemiology in Medicine. Edited by Sherry L. Mayrent. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1987.

Martin, Alan, and Samuel A. Harbison, eds., An Introduction to Radiation Protection. 3d ed. New York: Chapman and Hall, 1986.

McAfee, J. G., R. T. Kopecky, and P. A. Frymoyer. "Nuclear Medicine Comes of Age: Its Present and Future Roles in Diagnosis." Radiology (1990): 609-620.

Mettler, Fred A., Jr., and Arthur C. Upton. Medical Effects of Ionizing Radiation. 2d ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1995.

Schapiro, Jacob. Radiation Protection: A Guide for Scientists and Physicians. 3d ed.; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990.

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation.

"Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation." UNSCEAR 1993 Report to the General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes. New York: United Nations, 1993.

Upton, Arthur C. "The Biological Effects of Low-Level Ionizing Radiation." Scientific American (February 1982): 41-49.


Bradley, David. No Place to Hide. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1948.

Bush, Vannevar. Pieces of the Action. New York: William Morrow, 1970.

Conard, Robert A. Fallout: The Experiences of a Medical Team in the Care of a Marshallese Population Accidently Exposed to Fallout Radiation. New York: Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1992. Available from National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161.

D'Antonio, Michael. Atomic Harvest: Hanford and the Lethal Toll of America's Nuclear Arsenal. New York: Crown Publishing, 1993.

Divine, Robert A. Blowing on the Wind: The Nuclear Test Ban Debate 1954- 1960. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.

Eichstaedt, Peter H. If You Poison Us: Uranium and Native Americans. Santa Fe, N.M.: Red Crane Books, 1994.

Eisenbud, Merril. An Environmental Odyssey: People, Pollution and Politics in the Life of a Practical Scientist. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1990.

Fradkin, Phillip L. Fallout: An American Nuclear Tragedy. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1989.

Gallagher, Carole. American Ground Zero: The Secret Nuclear War. Boston: MIT, 1993.

Gerber, Michele Stenehjem. On the Home Front: The Cold War Legacy of the Hanford Nuclear Site. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.

Glasser, Otto. Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen and the Early History of the Roentgen Rays. San Francisco: Norman Publishing, 1993.

Hacker, Barton C. The Dragon's Tail: Radiation Safety in the Manhattan Project, 1942-1946. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. A history of radiation safety in the Manhattan Project, 1942- 1946.

------. Elements of Controversy: The Atomic Energy Commission and Radiation Safety in Atomic Weapons Testing, 1947-1974. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Hershberg, James. Harvard to Hiroshima and the Making of the Nuclear Age. New York: Alfred A. Knopf Publications, 1993.

Hewlett, Richard G., and Oscar E. Anderson, Jr. The New World: A History of the United States Atomic Energy Commission, Volume 1: 1939-1946. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1962.

------ and Francis Duncan. Atomic Shield: A History of the Unites States Atomic Energy Commission, Volume II: 1947-1952. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1969.

------ and Jack M. Moll. Atoms for Peace and War: Eisenhower and the Atomic Energy Commission: 1953-1961. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.

Johnson, Charles W., and Charles O. Johnson. City Behind a Fence: Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1942-1946. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1981.

Kathren, Ronald L., Jerry B. Gough, and Gary T. Benefiel, eds. The Plutonium Story: The Journals of Professor Glenn T. Seaborg, 1939- 1946. Columbus, Ohio: Battelle Press, 1994.

Kevles, Daniel J. The Physicists: The History of a Scientific Community in Modern America. New York: Vintage Books, 1979.

Lindee, Susan. Suffering Made Real: American Science and the Survivors of Hiroshima. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Mazuzan, George T., and J. Samuel Walker. Controlling the Atom: The

Beginnings of Nuclear Regulation, 1946-1962. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

Price, Don K. The Scientific Estate. New York: Oxford University Press, 1965.

Quinn, Susan. Marie Curie: A Life. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.

Rhodes, Richard. The Making of the Atomic Bomb. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986.

------. Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.

Rosenberg, Howard L. Atomic Soldiers: American Victims of Nuclear

Experiments. Boston: Beacon Press, 1980.

Smyth, Henry DeWolf. Atomic Energy for Military Purposes: The Official Report on the Development of the Atomic Bomb under the Auspices of the United States Government: 1940-1945. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1989.

Stannard, J. Newell. Radioactivity and Health: A History. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Office of Scientific and Technical Information, 1988.

Starr, Paul. The Transformation of American Medicine. New York: Basic Books, 1982.

Taylor, Telford. The Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trials: A Personal Memoir. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.

Udall, Stewart L. The Myths of August: A Personal Exploration of Our Tragic Cold War Affair with the Atom. New York: Pantheon Books, 1994.

Walker, J. Samuel. Containing the Atom: Nuclear Regulation in a Changing

Environment, 1962-1971. Berkeley: University of Califonia Press, 1992.

Weart, Spencer R. Nuclear Fear: A History of Images. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988.

Weisgall, Jonathan. Operation Crossroads. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1994.